The First-Rank Symptoms of Schizophrenia

The First-Rank Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Schneider’s first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia are symptoms which, if present, are strongly suggestive of schizophrenia.

Auditory hallucinations

Hearing voices conversing with one another

Voices heard commenting on one’s actions (hallucination of running commentary)

Thought echo (a form of auditory hallucination in which the patient hears his/her thoughts spoken aloud)

Passivity experiences (in which the individual has the experience of the mind or body being under the influence or
control of some kind of external force or agency; delusions of control or of being controlled)

Thought withdrawal (the delusional belief that thoughts have been ‘taken out’ of the patient’s mind)

Thought insertion (thoughts are ascribed to other people who are intruding into the patient’s mind)

Thought broadcasting (also called thought diffusion)

Delusional perception (linking a normal sensory perception to a bizarre conclusion, e.g. seeing an airplane means the patient is the president)

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